Category Archives: Articles

Response to Nakamura

“Technology of the Internet offers participants unprecedented possibilities for communicating with each other in real time, and for controlling the conditions of their own self-representations in ways impossible in face to face interaction” (Nakamura). Lisa Nakamura wrote this in her article titled Race In/For Cyberspace: Identity Tourism and Racial Passing on the Internet to illustrate how easy it is for one to portray an “image” of their self on the web, however, this image might be a complete false identity. To Nakamura, this technology is abused because people use avatars to go on a “vacation” from themselves and their particular race. She makes a compelling argument, to which I stand by because people playing games like LambdaMOO may all be “passing” as a certain gender or race because it is impossible to tell if the character online matches the player in real life. Also because many players in the gaming community take part in identity tourism, to which results in stereotypical behaviors of certain races. Last because man people who play games like LambdaMOO play the game to get away from reality or to vacate from their real life race or gender and play out another race or gender.
In Nakamura’s article she says “it can be said that everyone who participates [in LambdaMOO] is ‘passing’ as it impossible to tell if a character’s description matches a player’s physical characteristics.” This is true not only in LambdaMOO but also in online chat rooms and other online social interaction mediums. Unless one meets someone face to face, they can’t be certain that their online description is true. People post online what they want society to see; rather that what might be actually true. For example, on Facebook, people post edited pictures or even pictures of themselves years back. Also people worry about what photos they are “tagged” in because they want to make sure they look a certain way. They do this to look younger, or more appealing to society. I even am guilty of this, but what Nakamura wants to get at is the fact that some users, in her case in LambdaMOO, take advantage of this false identity and associate their character with certain races. As a matter of fact, players who describe their character as Asian, African American, Latino, or other minorities, engage in hostile game play because they do what the character do in real life (Nakamura). She also states how even though LambdaMOO does not mention race in their self-description, race is often assumed based on certain characteristics like hair and eye color. For example, she says how players with blue eyes and brown hair will be considered white in the absence of a racial description. If the user chooses not to include a racial description, he/she will be considered white because most Internet users are white, male, highly educated, and middle class (Nakamura). That is a form of stereotyping even though it is based on demographical evidence of Internet users. This also moves us towards Nakamura’s idea of identity tourism and what types of behaviors result.
Perhaps Nakamura’s central point is her idea of identity tourism, and how it results in stereotypical behaviors. Identity tourism is when a player chooses to take on a different identity by role-playing through a particular race or gender. These players are often white and they play out male Asian samurai characters (Nakamura). This is partly due to the samurai warrior fantasy stemmed from entertainment and media like Mortal Combat and Street Fighter (Nakamura). As I stated earlier, role-playing through certain race leads to stereotypical behaviors like playing hostile when portraying minority races. Identity tourism leads to the fact that players role-play to take a “vacation” from their race or gender.
In online communities such as LambdaMOO, players who spend their time role-playing a different representation of themselves are really taking a vacation. While it isn’t a typical vacation to the Bahamas, it still is a vacation from reality or from oneself. It is a cyber vacation. To highlight this idea of vacation from oneself, Nakamura says
“The fact that Lambda offers players the ability to write their own descriptions, as well as the fact that players often utilize this programming feature to write stereotyped Asian personae for themselves, reveal that attractions lie not only in being able to ‘go’ to exotic spaces, but to co-opt the exotic and attach it to oneself (Nakamura).”
In other words, players use the description feature to create a stereotypes false identity, like an Asian samurai warrior, to be able to take a vacation to a different race or gender. These users exploit certain cultures for recreation (Nakamura). Also there are distinct actions of Asian female personae in LambdaMOO. These characters are often played by men who seek out “netsex” from other players of both genders (Nakamura). Nakamura defines the action of men playing out females as “computer cross dressing.” Some names of computer cross dressers include: AsianDoll, Bisexual_Asian_Guest, Michelle_Chang, and MaidenTaiwan (Nakamura). Names like MaidenTaiwan and Michelle_Chang are very stereotypical to Asian culture, and they also seem to be mocking or poking fun at Asian culture; however, names like AsianDoll and Bisexual_Asian_Guest seem geared towards virtual sex or “netsex.” Players who vacate to this particular false identity describe themselves as mystical and beautiful. A white American man living in Japan described his Asian female character named Geisha_Guest as
“a petite Japanese girl in her twenties. She has devoted her entire life to perfecting the tea ceremony and mastering the art of lovemaking. She is multi-orgasmic. She is wearing a pastel kimono, 3 under-kimonos in pink and white. She is not wearing panties, and that would not be appropriate for a geisha. She has spent her entire life in pursuit of erotic experiences” (Nakamura).
This description is based on a sexual Asian female fantasy and is clearly meant to be sexual. As Nakamura later stated, this obsession with Asian females and other races as sexual figures extends farther than LambdaMOO in groups like “alt.sex.fetish.orientals” (Nakamura).
Clearly identity tourism is the stem of Nakamura’s article. All of her points are based off the idea of escaping ones true identity and acting out another. Her argument is strong because of the fact that players “pass” as another identity and there is really no way of knowing their true identity other than face to face communication, players make use of identity tourism and act based on racial stereotypes, and players use other race to take a vacation from reality and themselves.


Facebook Official

Community is defined by dictionary.com as “a social group of any size whose members reside in a specific locality, share government, and often have a common cultural and historical heritage.” Today, it seems like this definition doesn’t really cover all the aspects of community. Now days, we have social tools such as Facebook and Twitter to interact among friends. These tools also can be used to band people together in seeking out a common goal: like a Facebook Cancer Awareness Page. Community, in today’s sense, extends to these online social networks because there are actual groups of people online who share the same culture and share all of the requirements that a community has.            

            In Malcolm Gladwell’s article titled “Small Change,” his main focus is the fact that social networking sites, such as Facebook and Twitter, are ineffective tools used to define ones activism. He labels activism as something you do that you hold a strong tie connection to. Also activism involves some kind of high risk or sacrifice associated with it. For example, in his article he talks about the lunch sit-ins in Greensboro, North Carolina. What happened was a few African American students sat in at the Woolworth’s lunch joint. This lunch stop was knows to not service African Americans. Because of this, these students refused to leave even when protesters threw objects and taunted at them. To Gladwell, this was activism because these students stood up for themselves and were ready to put up with the consequences. These students were sacrificing something to stand up for what they believed in; however, Gladwell feels that social networking sites don’t promote activism like the sit-ins.

            Within communities around the world, activism occurs. Activism can in be a form of a protest, parade, even a riot. Activism is an attempt to change something. It is what keeps our communities going. If it weren’t for activism, America likely wouldn’t be. Of course Facebook activism is nowhere near the activism of or Founding Fathers, but we shouldn’t ignore social networking. Gladwell is flat out wrong when he compares social network activism to real life activism. He says social networks provide a “weak tie” connection, and to partake in activism you need a “strong tie” connection. He later says that the social network sites are built around these weak tie connections and all they do is make participation easier. While it is easier to just “like” a Facebook page than it is to volunteer time, Facebook allows the message to get out faster and to more people. For example, when a message is posted publically online, especially on Facebook, it is out there for the world to see. Hundreds and hundreds of thousands of people will see the message rather than a few who attended a protest. These people who see the Facebook page and feel a connection will probably “like” it. This will lead to an online community of people who “like” the same page. 


Trust None.

Some say keep your friends close and your enemies closer. Indeed! I go by the motto “trust none” except for God and Family. Although, never knowing when a family member will be at their all time low they can also cross you depending on the circumstances at hand. Never set yourself up for failure because guess what….in the end if you get played then you’re the one who’s going to be boo who crying asking yourself  “Why?” or “How Could They?” Plain and simple don’t set yourself up for failure.

Just think about it, it’s probably easier to call your enemies you’re friend because you will already know that they will stab you in the back or look for ways to hurt you. Hey, at least you will be ready and alert! Don’t ever say I warned you because the people that always say they got you’re back be the first ones to leave in a fucked up situation….and you know it’s true because it has happened to you! Hell, if they didn’t leave they sure as heck thought about it. Although, if no one else can make you happy you have to learn how to make yourself happy. That’s also what I go by. Depend on no one and you will not get hurt. Truth be told!


Reflection: Final Paper

Reflection Paper/Strengths and Weakness
When it came to analyzing other authors or writers, it seemed that it opened my eyes in some ways, that I needed to look at others ways in how would be approach my audiences or others that would be reading my articles, journals, or encounters. The best way that I learned was by going by sections and seeing each one and looking at each sentence and seeing what the author is trying to say and that seemed to help me out with how I would go about with writing my papers or articles.
When it comes to the genre, I understand that things are different and times become different in general because things change, or advancements grows into reality from paper or ideas. I know that when LeGuin made her speak in the 80s, things were different now compared to then. But I know that what she said can still be put in effect today as it was back then to the students that she was talking to. It helped me out because it showed me that no matter what time they are in, it came still come into times nowadays and we can surely use it here somehow.
When it comes to the tools that I used, I really didn’t use a lot of tools because the main point or idea that I wanted to get away towards my audience was the main point and showing my point of view in general so that people could look at it a different way and see if I could swing my vote towards them in a way. I just wanted to expand the view of others in a way and show that there is not just one point of view of something, that we can look at things from a distance and not judge something in some way.
When it comes to a blog, it felt weird doing it at first since I usually don’t post things on a blog in general outside of facebook and the amount of times that I do post things so at such random times and not very often either. But other than that, it was my time a professor had ever done that in class for her students and I felt that it was very cool and interesting at the same time. I write in a way differently because I want to make others think in ways so that they can look at it and take that step back and realize what I am trying to say or getting at.
I never broke any rules when it came to a genre because if that genre was before my times, it would be really hard because I would not want to step on anyone’s toes in anyway possible or get yelled at because I was not in that particular time period.
I would have to that the different genres that we discussed and wrote about in class was very interesting and opened my eyes in a way which was a good thing but I would have to say that they really did have a profound effect on myself, my work and how I perceive things as well when it comes to looking at other authors and writers.

Strengthens and Weaknesses
As my strengths, I would have to say that my ideas are pretty good and I can write pretty good writer, everything comes to me in general like everyone else but I feel that I cram too many things into it and over shoot it sometimes
I think that I need to improve more when it comes to making my papers to become stronger and have more depth in them in ways that we can clarify it for the readers.
I feel that if I were to put more time into my writings and proofread them so that they are not so confusing for the reader. I think that I just start typing and the words are there in my brain but perhaps that are coming out too fast and I cannot keep up with in some ways. My brain works faster than my mouth can speak.
I struggle with writing because sometimes things just don’t come to me in general. I think that I need to take more writing classes to improve myself in writing papers. I have dealt with it in a where I rewrite my papers over and over to somehow make them stronger and more understandable. The improvements that I have noticed is that I can really need to start my papers early so that I can truly put forth the effort more and be able to show more information about what my topic is all about.
What I learned from this class is to be more aware of what a reader would ask when it comes to questions and you want to be able to show the readers that a way somehow and not make it so confusing for them at the same time. I will use them skills to make my papers in the future stronger, better, and not so confusing for the readers who will be reading my articles or papers in general.


Looking Back On My Reflections

 Analyzing different audiences can affect writers and their work. Personally as a writer, I know that when an individual writes they have to have an idea to whom their audience will be or to whom they are trying to address before they begin the intended narrative. Analyzing different styles of writing the writer must take into consideration their audiences’ sex, age, education level, what they expect the reader to take away from the reading and what they are offering to the reader.

While noticing the numerous different types of audiences it has affected my writing by becoming a more adhesive and self proclaimed writer. I have learned to become more discrete while choosing not only my audience but also my topic for whom I chose to associate with. A person has to take into contemplation what their reader will know on an educational base. They have to think about what their reader might expect to see throughout the writing and what the reader might question, providing facts to back up an argument and the purpose as to why they are writing.

 The genre of a piece of writing impact’s how a writer should organize a paper due to the fact as to what genre it is and how they should break up the information on what they are discussing. For example, if it a genre based on fiction the writer can break a paper into four sections. Section one pertaining the author’s story, section two going into deeper depth to make a story realistic. Section three and four to give back up information from the first and second section allowing the reader to become more enthused into the writer’s narrative. Although, to write a narrative based on fiction I as the writer have to first determine who my initial crowd is (adults, young children etc.). Then from there I can develop a story based outline.

 Numerous rhetorical devices always include a genre, the writer’s word choices, implicit detail/attitude and a point of view to whom is being targeted. Ways I have used rhetorical tools were when writing narratives so that I can be the narrator and say exactly what I want with a certain style intended. For example, as the saying goes “Peter Picked a Peck of Pickled Peppers” is an example of alliteration, assonance and consonance. Although, in most papers I tend to write rhetorical devices on metaphors comparing to such things and even on onomatopoeias’ which are words to describe sounds like “buzz” or “clack”. I know that my rhetorical devices are based on the types of audiences that I write to such as I would use onomatopoeias’ for young children to add excitement.

 Writing for a blog has perceived me because there is always someone on a blog site that has feedback consisting of negative or positive inflection to what a writer has to say. Knowing this type of information, it gave me the insight that all comments are to help a writer and that most times a person is going to have something to say. Readers tend to agree to disagree because they feel as if their comment is needed and will be right. “While noticing several blog posts towards college students another writer will always have feedback on the material that they have just read but only some will have enough courage and heart to say exactly what they feel. While reading numerous posts a person may get about 2 out of 10 people who will solely speak their minds on what they feel holding nothing back.” A blog post written by me firmly stating my opinion as to what readers felt was accurate.

 Throughout all papers, encounters, blog posts and articles that I have written as a writer I think that I have broken the rules of genre more than likely at least twice. See, the way I think I feel as if to become a writer posting papers via internet I have to an abstract way of thinking ideas through. Saying, I tend to look at most situations from the back door, which most writers tend not to do. I look at numerous situations at a completely different angle asking several questions within the topic itself. I feel as if doing things such as this nature allows me to become a better and more experienced writer at hand. For instance, the encounters we have posted throughout the English semester had a sort of twist to it. A reader could give their opinion in a negative or positive way while the reader could give their opinion in a negative or positive way while the writer could ask questions within their work, agree and disagree with their own topic or even go completely off subject all while connecting the two in the end. On the other hand, while doing peer reviews the reader that consisted of the student had to act as the teacher. Sticking strictly grammar and other rules, they had to peer edit one’s work allowing it to become a great paper including suggestions of adding rhetorical devices and to whom they direct their audience to.

Strengths & Weaknesses

 Throughout the English writing course I have come to know that my strengths as a writer are coming up with brilliant ideas, thinking outside of the box while discussing topics, paraphrasing given information and relating things to my paper. I utilized my strengths and used it to my advantage by expanding my paper on the things that I was most comfortable with. Doing this allowed me to see things in an entire different perspective than usual. While in English 104 we were given the opportunity to discuss and write a paper on almost anything. Also using this to my advantage I had written my last and final article on how “Hip Hop Has Evolved”. Knowing numerous amounts of information and also being a hip hop listener personally I was indeed on the right path to inform and argue the fact that hip hop evolved over time for the worst.

One imperative thing that I did this semester was not always being stuck in only one style of writing. I learned how to open up my eyes to several new ideas that can not only help me as a writer but also allow me to write as a writer from a different perspective. It allows me to see how other writers look at certain situations and give ideas and feedbacks to my own piece of my work. It has helped me question myself, argue with myself and sometimes even disagree thinking to myself “What would my readers think of this piece of writing?”

Although, when a writer has strengths they also have weaknesses or particularly things that they struggle with. Personally, I know I tend to struggle with run-on sentences or in other words prolonging my information into an exceptionally long sentence. Knowing that this is not an entirely bad habit I am learning to get away from the run-ons while also expanding my work at the same time. While writing papers for several classes I have dealt with this issue by simply proofreading my material out loud after I have completed an article. Doing this enhances my skills to realize when I am liable of and how not only my mistakes that I have made but the paper in general will sound to my readers. Also, while in English 104 there was a lot of discussion. Taking this with me in the long run throughout life I will utilize the skills of agreeing/disagreeing what I feel is right, I will begin to question information that I once didn’t and I will also broaden my insight on more than one particular style of writing.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Artifact 2: Hip Hop is F*#!@D UP.

In the world today when it comes to the “hip hop” industry there are numerous amounts of trends that have taken place. An artist receives its recognition or number of plays for a given song due to how they tend to catch they’re listeners attention. When a person thinks of catching they’re listener’s attention they think of something that mainly everyone can relate to. In today’s society most people can relate to either sex, drugs or downgrading women to a point where others can think it is cool or acceptable.

One of the songs that had been at the top of the list on the chart was by rapper named Ludacris with a song title of “How Low Can You Go”. If you really think about the lyrics it was everything that you could imagine; and yes it was dealing with a female! “She can go lower than you ever thought she could” is a verse from this song as he demeans women. Although there is negativity in the song do not think twice about no one listening to it. With a catchy theme, nice music and an artist who has rank in the industry the overall message goes completely out the window for those exact reasons.

In my eyes this shows me that not only the hip hop world but society is really fucked up due to what catches our attention. Instead of saluting all of the positive reinforcements we go straight towards what has the most rank. The artists promoting the music or the catchy slogans in their songs; don’t get me wrong, not saying that all music promotes this type of negativity but it is what sells the most. Although, I do wish that such songs that support would get more rank than anything. Said best by Bakari Aki II “It is easy to write or comment about the negative aspects of hip-hop music because controversy and infamy has proven to be a hot seller in this society. But, hip-hop artists who rap positively or about political, social or economic empowerment receive scant attention.”

Just think about it, when teens talk with they’re friends they usually talk about something that would pursue others attention….Don’t you think?! It could be discussing last night’s party, what kind of liquor they had or even what kinds of clothes a female wore to attract the opposite sex so that she would get attention. Wellllll, at least in my eyes and several others around me that I know of this and other similar topics is what the discussion is mainly about. G this though; I’m not saying that all are talking about this topic or something similar but it’s what gets most people’s attention. Think what you want to think I’m just putting what other people often look past in everyday life out on paper!


Artifact 1: Changes Of Wilson

“Apocalypse Now” deciphers a letter between a Scientist and a Christian. Known from two different worlds, trying to come together and reconcile their differences. Edward O. Wilson establishes his credibility by writing a letter to one whom he antagonizes. The antagonist in which is a preacher, battling the option of common grounds Wilson tries to prove to his readers that both him and the preacher are friends; although they have not yet met “Dear Pastor, we have not met, yet I feel know you well enough to call you a friend” (Wilson,1). Wilson then explains the reason for which the letter is being established setting up a Rogerian Argument Wilson begins to build his argument.

Religion and science are two strong forces that can either be self-possessed or adversaries. In Edward Wilson’s letter of argument he neither states his side. Continuing on with the argument Edward begun to change up his words and talk somewhat religious to the pastor. Establishing his credibility by speaking religious he gives off a message, “yes this scientist does indeed know what he is talking about” in his reader’s eyes. He wants to prove to his readers his credibility of his religious side. “Every great religion offers mercy and charity to the poor” (Wilson, 10). All while tying in how the earth can benefit of two working together as one, “the poor of the world, of whom nearly a billion exist in the poverty trap of absolute destitution, are concentrated in the developing countries—-the home of 80 percent of the world’s population and most of Earth’s biodiversity” (Wilson, 10).

Wilson has the benefit of building both a robust and frail argument. Strong for the aspect of trying to take a stand and help the environment, knowing that it will eventually become worse due to today’s technology. “Scientists estimate that if habitat-conversation and other deconstructive human activities continue at their present rates, half the species of plants and animals on earth could be either gone or at least fated for early extinction.” (Wilson, 3). Wilson takes on the initiative to address the pastor, knowing that he has supremacy and major influences on the public. Overall, Wilson does not limit the letter to the pastor but to all religious and scientific views hoping to see the uplifting opportunities in order to solve these environmental disputes. “The fact that is that environmental activists cannot succeed without you and your followers as allies” (Wilson, 9).

In other views, Wilson takes on a weak approach of how the argument was forced. Forced? Wondering Why? The argument had become weak for the reason that Edward O. Wilson hadn’t given the preacher; with such power a voice to speak. Wilson, whom knows ample amounts about science writes everything out in a letter. Although, he wants them to be on the same platforms consisting of point of views pertaining to religion and earth how can they when Wilson abruptly forced the situation at the pastor through a letter? Yes, a letter can become more personal but how can the preacher defend and speak on these situations himself when there is no voice of him? The only thing left is the scientist’s (Wilson’s) argument.

Wilson forces the issue that not only the pastor but the pastor’s community and Wilson’s community needs to do something about the earth. Compelling sympathy within his arguments sets a tone that the earth should be the main focus. It should be healthy and come together as one; scientific views and religious views.

Religion and science are two powerful opposing subjects in the world today. Various people believe in a higher being that has come upon us and creating such an atmosphere. While on the other hand, there is science in which has contradicted such beliefs of the community to take a look and observe certain situations on an entirely different aspect level. Writing out to the pastor enforces that the issue is indeed serious. With a rogerian approach Wilson feels the need that imaginary pastor cannot refuse for the reason that it is to help out the people. Preserving the earth while using a religion and scientific based argument sets up a platform for the readers that the share different views but puts both out in the letter so that we as readers can understand where Wilson is coming from.


Artifact 2: The Silent Language

Growing up one acquires their own sense of language and determines the importance of it for themselves.  Some view it differently than I do and I know this from the start.  People who speak the same language have their own slurs, and accents, and lingos which they either make up with the people around them or learned from the people they spend time with.  For myself, a verbal language is not always the most important way of expressing myself. Growing up in a large family, my siblings usually had the higher ranks or speaking rights.  If I did speak, then I took the risk of saying something incorrect and being the subject of ridicule, so much of the time I spent watching and listening to my family.  They knew whether or not I was pleased by my expressions and actions, therefore I did not always need to speak to communicate with them.  Communicating with others is the  most valuable form of language, and does not always need to be spoken.  There are several ways of communicating without doing it verbally and I still consider this language because after all one can still get their feelings across without speaking, and I know this from firsthand experience. 

            Language is the general form of communication in all states, countries, and continents around the world.  Obviously there are many variations and there is no universal verbal communication for humans, but there are many deeper levels of understanding one another.  Communication cannot be based on language alone because there are multiple ways to find meaning in one’s actions.  Not everyone speaks the same language; therefore there are social Q’s, gestures, expressions, and even vibes people use to help determine what is trying to be said.  Although people from different parts of the world use different gestures, for example, in Egypt giving someone a thumbs up is the equivalent of giving them the middle finger here in the United States which is clearly an insult.  Ways to clarify these sorts of disputes without knowing the same verbal language is by using facial expressions which are universal, or even the tone of one’s voice has a lot of meaning.  If the voice tails off high pitched then it is usually a questioning tone, or an angry shouting tone is obvious, or a pleasant tone entails one is simply attempting to communicate. 

            Ursula K. Le Guin talks about something she calls the “father tongue” in her essay of the “Bryn Mawr Commencement Address (1986).”  This is basically explained as grouping everything about communicating together; because in the English language alone there are many different ways of speaking, gesturing, and communicating.  She explains how a politician has a very dissimilar way of speaking because they are always being watched, and have to be careful about trying to please everyone; on the other hand, when speaking to a friend it is very casual and grammar is not of the essence.  This is all grouped together when Le Guin is explaining the idea of father tongue.  It also includes sign language, or a teacher lecturing and student giving a speech, in comparison to the students in the classroom whispering amongst themselves.  When giving a speech in front of the classroom their dialect will be much different from the audience trying to whisper.  The chatting audience will use brief sentence fragments, while the speech giver will use full intelligent sentences connecting thoughts and ideas with proper grammar.  These are the ideas she is referring to when she speaks of a father tongue; she wants to address the fact that communicating can be done with various behaviors.  A person learns all these different ways of speaking, and when to use them socially over time in their life.  They learn by saying the wrong thing at the wrong time, or experiences other people using proper speech in certain situations and occasions.  The father tongue is not just the regular A, B, C’s that children learn in school, or proper grammar, or other types of speech one learns in their school years, even though this is included.  Le Guin wants the reader to understand that this “father tongue” is not just learned through education in schooling, but throughout all the experiences of one’s life.

 

 

Works Cited

Le Guin, Ursula K. “Bryn Mawr commencement Address(1986).” Serendip. Web.


Artifact 1: Edward O. Wilson

In the short article “Apocalypse Now” written by Edward O. Wilson, he attempts to gain the reader’s trust from the beginning of his letter formatted piece.  The article is written as if it were a letter and addressed “Dear Pastor,” although it is not even actually sent to any pastor.  This allows the reader to feel more comfortable from the start, and it personalizes the entire article to connect with anyone reading.  By doing this, Wilson is one step closer to achieving his first goal of forming a common ground between himself and the reader, or Christians (pastor), or other religious groups and descent.  He proclaims to have similar beliefs to the pastor. Wilson knows and understands that “religion and science are the two most powerful forces in the world today, and especially in the United States.”  After the author forms a rapport with the reader, he feels they will respect his ideas as a writer even though they have a different belief of origin and faith.  Once Wilson has successfully done this, he wants to sell his arguments on environmental issues which he believes to be very important addressing points.  He is a biologist who clearly has a very different view than Christian pastor, but Wilson realized that the United States along with the majority of the world are followers of Christ.  If he aims to achieve any goals on an issue such as saving the environment, he will need to “form an alliance between science and religion” to make a difference.  Wilson fears humans are the cause of the deaths of many different plants and animals, and if the race is not careful then they will wipe of many species altogether.  Ultimately the extinction of these natural species will be the effect of human carelessness for mother earth.  Referring back to the common ground throughout the beginning, middle, and end of the essay, Wilson keeps the reader engaged and on his side with the issues at hand.  The writer’s most important point and goal is to unite religion and Christian followers with science to make a difference with an attempted movement on environmental issues.  He shares a common appreciation for mother earth and creation; he just wants actions to be taken to preserve the place humans reside and use as a temporary home.

            The main goal of the article is to make a difference on environmental issues.  Wilson wants to save creation, but this is not an easy task.  Obviously the support of religious backgrounds will need to be gained to make a change, and a good way to go about it is through the political process.  Doing so, a change will be enforced throughout the United States which could start a trend and set an example for other powerhouse countries around the world destroying the promise land.  The next step is to preserve and accumulate the natural environment, and the way to accumulate mother earth is to save it, clean it, and build back up the natural beauty which has been damaged.  When using all of the resources ( religion combined with science combined with politics) Wilson intends on creating a big chance in the environment and conservations of it.

            Clearly, the intention of the piece is for Christians and/or religious practicing people as the main audience, but is does not just end there because anyone can read the article.  Obviously, they will initially notice the letter format and addressing label to the southern, Christian pastor and make an automatic connection with the writer.  The secularists (Wilson and science followers) are in dire need of help and are calling out to the Christians for assistance on their major movement. “The United States is an intensely religious nation. It is overwhelmingly Judeo-Christian, with a powerful undercurrent of evangelism. We secularists must face reality.” This is how Wilson explains the immense power of Christian influence here in America, and directs his writing toward them.

            The article by Wilson is basically an attempt to make a change in the current actions of humanity which is just taking advantage of the environment around him.  He is trying to form a movement with those who truly cherish and have a strong appreciation, whether you believe God created it as a gift with his ultimate power and wisdom, or you believe in another theory.  It is all very well the same to him as long as action will be taken.  This relates well to Gladwell’s short essay called “Small Change” because she writes of a widespread movement for civil rights and equality.  In “Apocalypse Now” it is a different movement as in saving the environment, but nonetheless, it is an attempt to make a change just like in the article by Gladwell.  He hopes for a big change, but it all starts with something little, “four college students sat down at the lunch counter at the Woolworth’s in downtown Greensboro, North Carolina.” is how the movement for equality began. Shortly after the initial sit down it grew in great distance across the country “By the end of the month, there were sit-ins throughout the South, as far west as Texas.”  The number also rose rapidly and by the end “some seventy thousand student eventually took part.”  A change can be made, there just needs to be the support of people by the numbers, and that is exactly what Wilson is addressing in his article by joining the religious and science following forces.

 

Works Cited

Wilson, Edward O. “Apocalypse Now.” The New Republic. Book

Gladwell, Malcolm. “Small Change.” Articles from the New Yorker. Newspaper.


Agree To Disagree

Throughout the college campus while numerous college students wrote narratives, articles and even papers based on facts, a person always either critiqued their work or another’s student work. When I say critique I literally mean what that individual could have written to make a narrative, article or a paper based on what they may think is better information. Students wanted to improvise a student’s imperfections making them into somewhat perfections. Although, sometimes a writer does not like to be told from another’s perspective how they should make their narrative to become better, literally feeling as if “their way is the best way”. Although, not liking what others have to say writers will tend to listen to other writers seeing what good information they can bring to the table.

While noticing several blog posts towards college students another writer will always have feedback on the material that they have just read but only some will have enough courage and heart to say exactly what they feel. While reading numerous posts a person may get about 2 out of 10 people who will solely speak their minds on what they feel holding nothing back. While you have the majority or will either just not comment or make up a false accusation directing a comment towards the writer saying that they really enjoyed their post. Why do this might you ask? People do this half the time just to avoid the possibility of confrontation due to the fact that you do have individuals who will speak up for their writings trying to hold their ground that the best way of writing is how they wrote it with no if, and’s or but’s. In other words, i feel as if a person should agree to disagree for the simple fact that everyone has their own unique ways of writing and everyone thinks that their way is the best!

 


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